CULTURAL AND ETHICAL VALUES - Essay Example28). He http://research-papers-for-sale882.mystrikingly.com/ uses this as the basic framework from which he developed the idea of virtue as mean â€“ the golden mean â€“ where ethical virtue remains "located on a map that places the virtues between states of excess and deficiency" (Kraut, 2007).In The Politics, Aristotle expands this idea by asserting that a "government is good when it aims at the good of the whole community, bad when it cares only for itself" (Russell, 2005, p. 183). Therefore, the ethical virtue of governments lies in the common good. Aristotle engaged in an extensive comparison of the governments of Greek city-states, and concluded that there were three "pure" forms of government: monarchy, aristocracy (rule by a few), and polity (rule by many). Each had a corresponding "perverted" form: tyranny, oligarchy, and democracy (Aristotle, Sinclair, & Saunders, 1992, pp. 238-240). Within the framework of virtue as mean, the pure forms signify excess and the perverted forms expound deficiency.